Glossary

 

Australian Institute of Architects (AIA) – formerly known as the Royal Australian Institute of Architects, AIA is the peak body for the architectural profession in Australia, representing 12,000 members. The Institute works to improve our built environment by promoting quality, responsible, sustainable design. Through its members, the Institute plays a major role in shaping Australia's future.

Department of Housing (WA) - provides public housing for those in need; affordable land and housing opportunities for those on low-moderate incomes; assists with housing finance; provides rental assistance; and provides government employees in regional areas with quality homes so that they can deliver the necessary services to their communities.

Heritage buildings – buildings that are inherited from past generations, maintained in the present and bestowed for the benefit of future generations. Cultural heritage is unique and irreplaceable, which places the responsibility of conservation on the current generation.

Metropolitan Redevelopment Authority (formerly East Perth Redevelopment Authority) - The MRA brings together the work of four agencies which have led the urban renewal of East Perth, Subiaco, Midland and Armadale. With vision and innovative design and planning – and in partnership with local government, communities and industry – the MRA continues to revitalise communities and create a distinctive sense of character and place that is transforming our city and redefining key areas of metropolitan Perth for generations.

The National Trust of Australia (WA) - The National Trusts of Australia are community-based, non-government organisations, committed to promoting and conserving Australia's indigenous, natural and historic heritage through its advocacy work and its custodianship of heritage places and objects.
 

Urban Design - is the process of designing and shaping cities, towns and villages. Whereas architecture focuses on individual buildings, urban design address the larger scale of groups of buildings, of streets and public spaces, whole neighbourhoods and districts, and entire cities, to make urban areas functional, attractive, and sustainable.

 

Architectural Styles:

The Indigenous Australians were a largely nomadic people, so there was little indigenous architectural style or tradition to influence the ideas and knowledge that the British settlers brought with them when settling Australia from 1788.

During the nineteenth century, Australian architects were inspired by developments in England. This is in part due to a large number of architects coming from England to Australia to practice. In the twentieth century, American and International influences dominated. As Australia gradually became a multicultural nation in the late 20th century, the influences of immigrants also became evident. Imported exotic styles earlier than this can be found in a small number of historically significant Joss houses and synagogues. In more recent times, other global and South-East Asian influences have had a minor influence on Australian architectural styles.

Some architectural styles show the direct influence of local factors such as climate (directly resulting in the "Filigree", "Queenslander" and "Federation Home" styles) and local materials and skillsets. Some Australian Architects were also seen at the forefront of various movements, particularly residential architects like Harry Norris, Roy Grounds, Robin Boyd, Frederick Romberg and Harry Seidler.

Art Deco – is an influential visual arts design style which first appeared in France in the 1920s, flourishing internationally in the 1930s and 1940s before its popularity waned after World War II. It is an eclectic style that combines traditional craft motifs with Machine Age imagery and materials. The style is often characterized by rich colors, bold geometric shapes, and lavish ornamentation.

Brutalism – Originated in Europe, symbolic of modernity and progress, became popular in the post war period. Characterised by the liberal use of concrete, this architectural movement focused on structure, utility and form instead of opulent and frivolous decoration. Confident and bold, Brutalism combined the new use of materials and building techniques and was perceived as a symbol of modernity and progress.

Federation Style – Federation style was an eclectic mix of styles, shapes, and materials. There are twelve federation styles, and from around 1890 to 1915, these were prevalent in Australia.

The name refers to the Federation of Australia on 1 January 1901, when the Australian colonies collectively became the Commonwealth of Australia. The architectural style had antecedents in the Queen Anne style of England and shingle style of the Eastern United States.

Inter War Art Deco Style – with its use of graphic decorative elements and modern, eye-catching materials, this style is more toned down and easy to approach the original Art Deco Style.  The inter-war Art Deco style came to be favoured for two distinctively twentieth century building types: the cinema and the skyscraper. In Australia, the style was also frequently used in commercial and residential interiors and shopfronts.

Inter War Commercial Palazzo Style (c.1915 – 1940) - often the model for this architectural style was the fifteenth- or sixteenth-century three-storey Italian townhouse or palazzo. Detail and ornament followed classical precedents. Australia generally followed overseas models, which were well documented in architectural periodicals. Banks, insurance companies and well-established, conservative financial institutions regarded the style as appropriate to the image they wished to create. Smoothly finished, ‘permanent’ materials were favoured for street facades. Ashlar stonework and architectural terracotta (faience) were the preferred materials, and they could usually be afforded by those who chose to build in this style.

Minimalist Modern – “Be more with less”. Minimalist Architecture represents an omission of spatial inessentials, showcasing simple, clean designs. Smooth white forms are common, as well as a reduction in mass of basic architectural forms, resulting in a light, delicate aesthetic.

Modernism - The modern movement in architecture and industrial design, which emerged in the early 20th century, responded to sweeping changes in technology and society. A new world of machines and cities forced artists to think anew about their environment. Modernist ideas have pervaded every form of design, from graphics to architecture, as well as being a key influence on art, literature and music.

Streamline Modern/Art Deco Style - was a late type of the Art Deco architecture and design that emerged in the 1930s. Its architectural style emphasized curving forms, long horizontal lines, and, sometimes, nautical elements.

Stripped Classical Style - Emerging modernism in the late 1930s inspired a variation of classicism which was devoid of all ornamentation. These buildings feature plain walls and vertical spandrel emphasis with occasional classical columns and traditional materials (such as stone and terracotta).

Victorian Georgian Style - The Victorian style in Australia can be divided into 3 periods: Early, Mid and Late. The period in its entirety stretches from 1837 to 1901 and was named after the then Queen, Queen Victoria. Late Victorian Style homes had perhaps the most decorative features in all of the known architectural styles to date, which is often referred to as Boom Style. Towards the end of the Victorian era, timber fretwork was being used more and more, which led into the Edwardian/Federation Styles. A typical Georgian house of the 19th century was simple, elegant and formal in style.

 

Environmental/Sustainability:

 

Sustainability – some of the definitions for sustainability include living within the limits of what the environment can provide, understanding the many interconnections between economy, society and the environment, equal distribution of the resources and opportunities.

Upcycling - is the process of converting waste materials or useless products into new materials or products of better quality or for better environmental value.

Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) - are emitted as gases from certain solids or liquids. VOCs include a variety of chemicals, some of which may have short- and long-term adverse health effects. Concentrations of many VOCs are consistently higher indoors (up to ten times higher) than outdoors. VOCs are emitted by a wide array of products numbering in the thousands. Examples include: paints and lacquers, paint strippers, cleaning supplies, pesticides, building materials and furnishings, office equipment such as copiers and printers, correction fluids and carbonless copy paper, graphics and craft materials including glues and adhesives, permanent markers, and photographic solutions.

 

Rating tools:

 

BCA Green Mark Scheme - launched in January 2005 as an initiative to drive Singapore's construction industry towards more environment-friendly buildings. It is intended to promote sustainability in the built environment and raise environmental awareness among developers, designers and builders when they start project conceptualisation and design, as well as during construction.

GREEN STAR RATING – Green Building Council of Australia

Launched in 2002, the GBCA is a national, not-for-profit organisation that is committed to developing a sustainable property industry for Australia by encouraging the adoption of green building practices. It is uniquely supported by both industry and governments across the country.

The Green Building Council's mission is to develop a sustainable property industry for Australia and drive the adoption of green building practices through market-based solutions.

Its key objectives are to drive the transition of the Australian property industry towards sustainability by promoting green building programs, technologies, design practices and operations as well as the integration of green building initiatives into mainstream design, construction and operation of buildings.

Hong Kong Building Environmental Assessment Method (HK-BEAM) - was introduced to Hong Kong in 1996 and is an environmental performance based assessment scheme purpose designed for high-rise buildings in the community. The certification scheme is completely voluntary and is owned by the HK-BEAM Society, a non-profit making organisation consisting of industry professionals.

 

Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) - is a suite of rating systems for the design, construction, operation, and maintenance of green buildings, homes and neighbourhoods. LEED is intended to help building owners and operators find and implement ways to be environmentally responsible and resource-efficient.